CAPITVLVM VNVM PARS DVO (Lesson One, Part two)

More on Verbs: There are 5 conjugations in Latin. Spanish students will recall that there
are 3 (-ar, -er, and -ir) in that language, and French students will recall that there are 3 regular
conjugations ( -er, -ir, -re ) in French. Latin amō belongs to the First Conjugation. The Latin
conjugations are numbered 1-4, where the 5th is a mix of 3 and 4, and it is somethings lumped in with
3, or called the Mixed Conjugation.
(This all only applies to regular verbs, of couse. Every language has irregulars, Latin being no exception.)

Latin verbs will be listed in the dictionary by their four principle parts. The first one is the "I <verb present tense>"
form. The second is the infinitive the "to <verb>" form. The last two aren't important right now so we'll talk about them
when they come up.
amō would be listed like this:
amō, amāre, amāuī, amātus.

amō is very, very regular. More regular -āre verbs are:
dōnō, dōnāre, dōnāuī, dōnātus - give, present, award
optō, optāre, optāuī, optātus - desire
labōrō, labōrāre, labōrāuī, labōrātus - work
pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāuī, pugnātus - work

More on Nouns: I've already mentioned the case system. There are 5 catagories of nouns, called
declensions. puella belongs to the first declension. It is by far the easiest to learn, and contains
many important words.

Dictionary entries will be the nominative singular, followed by the genitive singular. We haven't discussed the
genitve yet. In the first declension, the gentive singular looks just like the nominative plural.
puella, puellæ - girl
aqua, aquæ - water
āra, āræ - alter
glōria, glōriæ - glory, renown
argricola, argricolæ - farmer

For those of you that might think it is confusing to have the accusative plural collide with the genitive singular, I again
defer to English. The s ending in English can mean EITHER plural OR possession. Ex. The dogs vs
The dog's collar. We are seldom, if ever, confused by this. (The functions the same way, it is either
plural or possessive, the genitve being the case of possession, but we'll talk about this later.)

More on putting nouns and verbs together: Let's look at some more example sentences:
Puella aquam dōnat - The girl gives water.
Agricola puellam amat - The farmer loves the girl.
Agricola et puella aram amant - The farmer and (et) the girl love the altar.
glōriam optās - You desire glory.
labōrātis - You are all working.
pugnāmus - We are fighting. OR We fight.

That's it for Lesson One, Part two. Lesson one, Part three coming soon!


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